Scientists Who Shaped World History

In excellent condition this is a Cooke x80 Apo oil immersion objective with an impressive numerical aperture of 1. A fine objective from a time when microscopes were at the forefront of medical research American Optical x10 Price: A relatively rare American made lens in good condition. Infinity corrected with a numerical aperture of 0. In very good condition this is a Leitz L32 objective with a numerical aperture of 0. Standard RMS screw thread.

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The lacquer was literally peeling off, the fine focus didn’t work and one lens was almost totally opaque due to a thick dust cover! Fortunately, except for the lacquer, the microscope could be brought to a better state. Some historical background I’m not at all an expert in microscopes history.

REE/U/Th Phosphates: Monazite & Xenotime. Our instrument is configured for simultaneous analysis of all rare earth elements plus U, Th, and Pb. This allows precise determination of chemical ages from monazite, and of temperatures of equilibration for monazite-xenotime assemblages.

This is how he meets one Sherlock Holmes. Johnlock, Mystrade au Co-written with Winterimperfect Rated: He got up, putting his robe on before making his way to the kitchen. Harry was trying to dance, albeit horribly, which caused John to snort before he began laughing. The two were fraternal twins; they looked almost exactly alike, though she had long blond hair with hazel eyes. He had no idea how she continued to be so thin since she ate so much. He never thought he’d be living with his sister.

Only a few months ago he had a flat with his now Ex-Fiance. John wasn’t the type to date really; he wanted to spend his life with one person like Harry was doing. Harry had gotten married four years ago to Clara; she was a night shift Register Nurse. The moment John met her he knew Clara was perfect for his sister. John grabbed an apple as Harry made breakfast.

History of biology

If we do, then we’ll certainly take our place among the ranks of scoffers who accidentally helped delay numbers of major scientific discoveries throughout history. Beware, for many discoveries such as powered flight and drifting continents today only appear sane and acceptable because we have such powerful hindsight. These same advancements were seen as obviously a bunch of disgusting lunatic garbage during the years they were first discovered.

In science, pursuing revolutionary advancements can be like searching for diamonds hidden in sewage. It’s a shame that the realms of questionable ideas contain “diamonds” of great value. This makes the of judging crazy theories far more difficult.

Various lists of scientists who shaped world history. Plus a list of 48 scientists who were devout Christians, from the book Scientists of Faith, by Dan Graves.

Then the Internet came along, and for some sentimental reason I couldn’t resist the sad-looking relic, described as a ‘Watson monocular’, that was posted last year on the website of an auction house. There it sat incongruously in a furniture sale, next to a couple of brass telescopes. But the auction house was miles from home and I had no chance of visiting it before the sale. I took a deep breath, entered a bid across the web and won the ‘monocular’.

It arrived several fraught weeks later via the impenetrable jungle of a Parcelforce warehouse. The good news was that, although two of the control knobs had fallen off in transit, nothing was missing from the stand itself and nothing that had survived was broken. The only visible identification marks were the Watson name and address and the serial number The case and the containers for the objectives were all missing. The condition of the stand was poor, hinting at decades of neglect punctuated by moments of abuse.

The coarse, fine, substage and stage adjustments were all jammed solid, the mirror was badly tarnished and the top lens of the condenser was heavily pitted. The condition of the coarse and substage adjustments suggested that somebody had tried to wrench them round after they had become stuck. Restorers and users of old microscopes will be familiar with the two greens. A dark green residue is left by the heavy garage grease that some owners plaster onto the moving parts of their instruments.

Watson & Sons

Zeiss Antique Brass Microscope This is a fine antique monocular brass microscope in its original case dating from approximately It has no makers name but there are features that attest to its quality. The brass is in good condition for its age. The microscope has two objectives each with its own brass objective pot and ine eyepiece. The stage has a slide holder and very unusually has a dissection plate assembly with tether points that can be attached to the microscope stage.

The primary tool that made this popular enthusiasm possible was the microscope. Within a year period, the microscope went from being a very expensive handmade instrument in the hands of only a relatively few wealthy individuals to a widely available, mass-produced instrument, affordable by practically anyone.

This is an extremely rare very early reichert with integral transmitted illumination. Finished in brass and black in very good condition. Twin objective turret with twin coarse focus and single fine focus controls and a focusing condenser. This still works although there no transformer is supplied because of current safety regulations.

A superb collectors piece. Brass Antique Microscope Price: From a time when the look of a microscope was as important as what you could see down it. Dating from approximately This is a long tube monocular microscope in good condition for its age.


Geologia, biologia, phytologia generalis et dendrologia, published in Before biology, there were several terms used for the study of animals and plants. Natural history referred to the descriptive aspects of biology, though it also included mineralogy and other non-biological fields; from the Middle Ages through the Renaissance, the unifying framework of natural history was the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being.

The increasingly easy access to scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and electron microprobes (EMP) at that time is at the origin of the development of accessory mineral petrology, which emerged as an autonomous topic with the first special issue of Chemical Geology in (Watson et al., ). EMP dating of accessory phases, especially.

Structure of cytosine with and without the 5-methyl group. Deamination converts 5-methylcytosine into thymine. Base modifications and DNA packaging Further information: DNA methylation and Chromatin remodeling The expression of genes is influenced by how the DNA is packaged in chromosomes, in a structure called chromatin. Base modifications can be involved in packaging, with regions that have low or no gene expression usually containing high levels of methylation of cytosine bases.

DNA packaging and its influence on gene expression can also occur by covalent modifications of the histone protein core around which DNA is wrapped in the chromatin structure or else by remodeling carried out by chromatin remodeling complexes see Chromatin remodeling. There is, further, crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modification, so they can coordinately affect chromatin and gene expression. Mutagens include oxidizing agents , alkylating agents and also high-energy electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light and X-rays.

The type of DNA damage produced depends on the type of mutagen. For example, UV light can damage DNA by producing thymine dimers , which are cross-links between pyrimidine bases. Because of inherent limits in the DNA repair mechanisms, if humans lived long enough, they would all eventually develop cancer.

A late 19th Century English Cased Monocular Microscope, By & Sons, London,

Share this article Share The comprehensive appraisal by Cochrane, a non-profit group who analyse medical evidence through results from the world’s best medical research studies, aims to challenge Roche’s claim when its findings are released tomorrow. Cochrane Collaboration founder Sir Iain Chalmers said Tamiflu makers Roche ‘refused to provide data’ The Cochrane Collaboration, considered by experts to be the ‘gold standard’ of medical evidence, also reported problems obtaining data from Roche back in Samantha Millard, 19, became critically ill after suffering a severe allergic reaction to the tablets, which she took on the advice of the controversial NHS helpline.

Within 72 hours of taking three pills, doctors put her on life support. Samantha spent a month in hospital after developing the life-threatening Stevens Johnson syndrome, which causes the skin to peel off, and later developed toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome, which has damaged her sight. Roche responded by saying it has provided Cochrane with access to 3, pages of detailed information as part of their review.

W. Watson and Son was an optical instrument maker. In , the William Watson business was established in London for the manufacture of optical the s, the company moved into lanterns, slides and associated equipment.

So why has a new analysis of DNA structure been reported so poorly? It wasn’t the fault of the scientists involved, but the sloppy way the result was reported that got my scientific goat. The accompanying article interspersed fact with fancy before finally concluding that the new imaging technique would enable us to see “how it interacts with proteins and RNA”.

I’ll explain why in a minute but first let’s look at New Scientist’s coverage of the same paper. This was a more measured and more accurate account of the new result but the piece got off to a bad start. Roland Pease’s article claimed that “an electron microscope has captured the famous Watson-Crick double helix in all its glory. The accompanying image was fuzzy and did not show a double helix that resembled the one described by Watson and Crick.

Model and electron micrograph of a DNA fibre published in Nano Letters Pease followed this up with the same ill-founded claim that the new method would allow researchers to see how other biomolecules interact with DNA. I’m not sure where this claim has come from because it’s not in the paper. A faulty press release perhaps?

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In , the name of the company was changed to W. The warehouse and show room remained at High Holborn. In , a section in the journal Knowledge lists an assortment of equipment available from the company: The company also offered Finsen -type lamps.

Feb 13,  · Hi there just bought a Watson looks great but missing a lens from the turret and the bulb from the base. Delighted you found a bulb to fit, do you have more information on the bulb. I .

The actress reiterated her stance on securing her private life in the latest issue of Interview Magazine , telling Jessica Chastain that it means a lot to her to protect intimate details from the public. When I step into a character, people have to be able to suspend their disbelief; they have to be able to divorce me from that girl. And not having everyone know every single intimate detail of my entire life is part of me trying to protect my ability to do my job well.

The year-old added that her privacy is especially important to her because she often gets overwhelmed by the pressures of fame, saying: And sometimes the fear of doing things is overwhelming. I get incredibly overwhelmed, and sometimes feel hemmed in by that, afraid of that. But I know that if I live in that fear, then my life as an artist, as a human being, really, is over. I thought I was going to hyperventilate. No one likes feeling vulnerable and uncomfortable and weak.

It made me think a lot about what I would do if I had children. A lot of children of this generation have their entire lives made public before they have a say about what they would want. I think it should always be a choice. And, increasingly, our attention is our most important resource. Before the press tour, I deleted my e-mail app from my phone and really tried to create serious boundaries from it, because it is addictive.

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Five stories describing the birth of electron microprobe dating in various places. Abstract This paper is a testimony of how electron microprobe dating of monazite was developed in the early days of this technique, in the 90’s. The first results were published in , with great difficulty. Progressive improvement of the method finally allowed the Nagoya team to date Cenozoic monazite.

This is a set of objectives for a polarising microscope that has the individual clamp mechanism for attaching the objectives (for example our previous model XSP70).

Zeiss Antique Brass Microscope This is a fine antique monocular brass microscope in its original case dating from approximately It has no makers name but there are features that attest to its quality. The brass is in good condition for its age. The microscope has two objectives each with its own brass objective pot and ine eyepiece. The stage has a slide holder and very unusually has a dissection plate assembly with tether points that can be attached to the microscope stage. Condition very good taking into account their obvious age.

It is rare to find these units that have all the accessory filters still in place. The mirror does show its age but without pickling or loss of mirroring.

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Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 6 , Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 4 , This allows precise determination of chemical ages from monazite, and of temperatures of equilibration for monazite-xenotime assemblages.

“Doctor John Hamish Watson, was an army doctor over in Afghanistan sixteen years ago, while deployed you met a young woman, Amelia Kinsey, she was an American journalist. Also the same woman who was found murdered today,” the girl states, she mumbled something else but John didn’t quite catch it.

Zircon is ubiquitous in the crust of Earth. It occurs as a common accessory mineral in igneous rocks as primary crystallization products , in metamorphic rocks and as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks. Their average size in granite rocks is about 0. Because of their uranium and thorium content, some zircons undergo metamictization. Connected to internal radiation damage, these processes partially disrupt the crystal structure and partly explain the highly variable properties of zircon.

As zircon becomes more and more modified by internal radiation damage, the density decreases, the crystal structure is compromised, and the color changes. Zircon occurs in many colors, including reddish brown, yellow, green, blue, gray and colorless. Other applications include use in refractories and foundry casting and a growing array of specialty applications as zirconia and zirconium chemicals, including in nuclear fuel rods, catalytic fuel converters and in water and air purification systems.

Zircon is a part of the ZTR index to classify highly- weathered sediments. Occurrence[ edit ] World production trend of zirconium mineral concentrates Zircon is a common accessory to trace mineral constituent of most granite and felsic igneous rocks. Due to its hardness, durability and chemical inertness, zircon persists in sedimentary deposits and is a common constituent of most sands.

Zircon is rare within mafic rocks and very rare within ultramafic rocks aside from a group of ultrapotassic intrusive rocks such as kimberlites , carbonatites, and lamprophyre, where zircon can occasionally be found as a trace mineral owing to the unusual magma genesis of these rocks. Zircon forms economic concentrations within heavy mineral sands ore deposits , within certain pegmatites , and within some rare alkaline volcanic rocks, for example the Toongi Trachyte, Dubbo, New South Wales Australia [16] in association with the zirconium-hafnium minerals eudialyte and armstrongite.

Because zircons can survive geologic processes like erosion , transport, even high-grade metamorphism , they contain a rich and varied record of geological processes.

Improving The Microscope (1959)